C Convert Long To Bytes

Since then some of you have informed me of a much easier way. This VBA Tutorial is accompanied by an Excel workbook containing the macros, data and formulas I use in the examples below. Use this page to learn how to convert between gigabytes and bytes. ConvertDataTypes is the helpfull website for converting your data types in several programming languages. We will look at two major types of byte ordering: Little-Endian and Big-Endian. Finally convert the ByteBuffer to byte array. ) On most 32 bit systems, these correspond to 1 byte, 2 byte, 4 byte, and 8 byte numbers. /** Data buffer/ byte data[CC1101_DATA_LEN]; That line of code declares an array of datatype byte. Dim b As Byte = Convert. Suffixes: An F is used at the end. The BitConverter class in. karim hamdadi. Instant free online tool for word to byte conversion or vice versa. GetBytes("foo"); …. command_stdout. Let's see the simple code to convert int to long in java. True, that's most of them, but (unlike Java and C#) C and C++ do not define the sizes or formats of the integer and floating point types. You should also note that it's quite possible on x86 systems that even if long double takes 16 bytes, all calculations might be done at 80-bit precision (which is what the FPU operates at) and the remaining 6 bytes of the long double actually remain unused. Convert Packed-Decimal to Text This section describes how to convert the previously discussed packed-decimal formats into text strings to print or display the information in a human readable form. So total data it can store is 8+8bytes. It is required to be at least 32 bits, and may or may not be larger than a standard integer. In this VBA Tutorial, you learn how to convert strings to numbers of the Byte, Integer, Long, Single, Double, Currency and Decimal data types. Convert Char To Byte This section illustrate the. convert string to byte array; Convert Byte() <-> String; How to convert byte() to string, and from string back to byte() How to Convert Byte Array to Int32 (Big-endian) Please Help me Convert This VB60 Code; Convert from byte array to string; Convert Delphi record structure to C Sharp; convert form byte[4] to Int32 while retaining the binary. Converting file into byte array important to store binary file in database, send to other systems using remoting. byte -> short -> int -> long -> float -> double. In java int data type take 4 bytes (32 bits) and it's range is -2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483, 647. MaxValue;//you can extract short into two bytes. ConvertDataTypes is the helpfull website for converting your data types in several programming languages. The good part about the method taking a byte[] parameter is that part of the work is already done for you – getting the byte representation of your data. Discards any whitespace characters until the first non-whitespace character is found, then takes as many characters as possible to form a valid integer number representation and converts them to an integer value. NET / Getting Started / Convert from a hex string to a byte array in C# Convert from a hex string to a byte array in C# [Answered] RSS 5 replies. But if we look closely, they are just arbitrary arrays of bits, the only difference between t. Tip: Lists display in a more friendly way with the print method. This section illustrate the conversion from char to Byte. The range of values is from -128 to 127. The C language provides the four basic arithmetic type specifiers char, int, float and double, and the modifiers signed, unsigned, short and long. Best way to do. ImageUrl; // Convert Base64 String to byte[] byte[] imageBytes = Convert. The following table lists the permissible combinations to specify a large set of storage size-specific declarations. Here, we are going to convert a char type variable into byte type variable. Length property being a long. The BitConverter class in. Convert any type to byte array. You can use IPAddress. This is so I can store a long in a file (I don't want to store the actual textual number because I want a fixed number of characters). I have written a simple C header for converting the endianness of short integers and long integers. The type of a variable determines how much space it occupies in storage and how the bit pattern stored is interpreted. The byte takes 1 byte of memory and int takes 4 bytes of memory. But if we look closely, they are just arbitrary arrays of bits, the only difference between t. Little and Big Endian Endianess. The gigabyte [GB] to byte [B] conversion table and conversion steps are also listed. karim hamdadi. If (unsigned char) c is no valid single byte multibyte character or if c is EOF, the function returns WEOF. This section illustrate the conversion from char to Byte. The following example shows converting a Long to Byte array. I often find myself scouring the intern. The word to byte [B] conversion table and conversion steps are also listed. I have it working for byte, short, int and float but cannot get the long to work. We also convert kilobytes to megabytes. If the data types are compatible, then Java will perform the conversion automatically known as Automatic Type Conversion and if not then they need to be casted or converted explicitly. It is undefined behaviour to try to. png image file to embedded C/C++ code style array or string: {HEX: \x. 4 GB to byte = 4294967296 byte. This is the standard. please help? I was asked to do this question using union. Rob Pike 23 October 2013 Introduction. On the other side I want to take that byte[] and convert it back into a double. Conversion of Data Transfer Rate Units In the analog transmission of information of the physical size, the corresponding data are continuously impressed. I often find myself scouring the intern. The following declares two byte variables called b and c: byte b, c; The following code creates two byte type variabls and assigns values. Its not required to know how long the number is, nor does the code have to skip over any bytes to find the byte containing the sign information. We need to prepare hex string before could convert hex to a byte array and vice versa, and I noticed many forum create a small function to do the conversion from string to hex and convert a string to byte. A column uses one length byte if values require no more than 255 bytes, two length bytes if values may require more than 255 bytes. 4 GB to byte = 4294967296 byte. Like Morris, the perpetually hard-to-please cat in the 9Lives™ Cat Food commercials, Java expects things to be a certain way and won't put up with alternatives. This can be done with the Ticks property on TimeSpan. take a number of gigabytes and convert it down in to megabytes, kilobytes, or bytes) you simply multiply the original number by 1,024 for each unit. The following table lists the permissible combinations to specify a large set of storage size-specific declarations. First of all, a char literal looks like this: 'A' Do you mean a string literal, like "Hello world"?. Converts a specified value to an 8-bit unsigned integer. We can convert int to long in java using assignment operator. Programming Requirements for the File Transfer and Convert Software Source Code for File Format Conversion Program A sequential data file with variable length records that is a mirror image of a mainframe formatted file must be converted to a Micro Focus or GnuCOBOL formatted file with variable length records. Long Integer: A long integer is a data type in computer science whose range is greater (sometimes even double) than that of the standard data type integer. 1 GB to byte = 1073741824 byte. Bytes objects are immutable sequences of single bytes [1] in the range between o and 255 (inclusive) [2]. Note: this allows the extreme case in which bytes are sized 64 bits, all types (including char) are 64 bits wide, and sizeof returns 1 for every type. I'll show you the easy way first and then include the longer method below. In C, it is denoted by long. FillerLogger uses a function to append the data in a text file. Could anyone please suggest me a way of doing this. MaxValue;//you can extract short into two bytes. NET / Getting Started / Convert from a hex string to a byte array in C# Convert from a hex string to a byte array in C# [Answered] RSS 5 replies. net byte arrays can be easily compared, compressed, stored, or converted to other data types. Note: this allows the extreme case in which bytes are sized 64 bits, all types (including char) are 64 bits wide, and sizeof returns 1 for every type. } and binary file for download, the data format is compatible for all Digole serial modules. I'd like to convert a long to an array of chars and back. NET framework provides methods to convert a byte array into a Hexadecimal string ( byte. Convert Long To Byte In this section, we are going to convert a long type data into a byte. please provide me the program with explanation. Alas, there is no "right" ordering to store the bytes in multi-byte quantities. I need to convert a Random. You can also learn how to translate binary to decimal and back using hexadecimal as a stepping stone between the two number forms. In some cases, we have to convert String variable into a Byte array format, for example, JCE encryption. You should also note that it's quite possible on x86 systems that even if long double takes 16 bytes, all calculations might be done at 80-bit precision (which is what the FPU operates at) and the remaining 6 bytes of the long double actually remain unused. im trying to convert my GPS data from long int, to byte* and save them in my microSD card using the FileLogger library. ConvertDataTypes is the helpfull website for converting your data types in several programming languages. please help? I was asked to do this question using union. You can also check the gigabytes to bytes conversion chart below, or go back to gigabytes to bytes converter to top. Convert any type to byte array. Alas, there is no "right" ordering to store the bytes in multi-byte quantities. The gigabyte [GB] to byte [B] conversion table and conversion steps are also listed. Best Answer: Beware than an int is 4 bytes long *only* on implementations where an int is 4 bytes long. I often find myself scouring the intern. Convert an IP Address from Decimal to Binary Form www. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world x86 instructions can be anywhere between 1 and 15 bytes long. im trying to convert my GPS data from long int, to byte* and save them in my microSD card using the FileLogger library. encoding (Optional) - if source is a string, the encoding of the string. ToInt32(value, fromBase) Dim l As Long = Convert. Data types in c refer to an extensive system used for declaring variables or functions of different types. ByteBuffer class can do this for you. Converts a specified value to an 8-bit unsigned integer. Recently I needed to convert a number of bytes to a readable string that represents the number of kilobytes, megabytes or gigabytes. but integer equal to (4 bytes == 32. for that i have tried like this string x = prevImg1. It is easier to persist a long in storage. Type conversion in Java with Examples When you assign value of one data type to another, the two types might not be compatible with each other. So you can use System. int an_int=42;. Long: The methods use the long type. I created an extension method for Int32 which does this for me Int64 as per Alex’s comment about the FileInfo. We learn about the Function in C Plus Plus _____ - Call by Pointer This method copies the address of an argument into the formal parameter. Java layer converts bytes to long type, analyses the data and sends the response, converting long back to 4 bytes data. If (unsigned char) c is no valid single byte multibyte character or if c is EOF, the function returns WEOF. 6 GB to byte. My idea is to pass in a loop a bunch of bytes and then put them into a bytearray on the other side. In the above program, we have a byte array named bytes. A) Data Lines B) HEX C) Word D) Byte. Convert String offers free and secure online tools for converting strings between formats. C Printf and Scanf Reference except l specifies the argument is a long or unsigned long. Main: The character representations from the input string were first converted to fit in one byte elements each. convert a float to a series of bytes Below is code to convert an unsigned long integer into bytes. The left-side value can be assigned to any right-side value and is done implicitly. FillerLogger uses a function to append the data in a text file. A byte will store an 8-bit unsigned number with a range of 0 to 255, no decimal points. I forgotten how to do so. In this VBA Tutorial, you learn how to convert strings to numbers of the Byte, Integer, Long, Single, Double, Currency and Decimal data types. Accuracy is "unlimited" between binary and hexadecimal (and vice versa), and is up to 20 digits for decimals. Table A-1, "Mapping of Oracle Native Data Type to. NET class and UI to control those states. Suffixes: An F is used at the end. You don't need third party tools for this -- the java. Here, we are going to convert a char type variable into byte type variable. ?why it is 32 bit?. In COBOL comp-3 fields (and in most other languages) this nybble is reserved for the sign whether or not the field is denoted as a signed field in the COBOL PIC. vbCity is a community of VB and. (web) hex values into a byte array; Basic Question about Byte Array; Problem recreating an image from an rgb byte array; Sending long int over serial (byte array conversion) Create byte array; Witing and reading a byte Array from XML file in C++. (140 bytes – 6 bytes for the concatenation header leaves 134 available bytes, or 7 * 134 = 1072 bits. ConvertDataTypes is the helpfull website for converting your data types in several programming languages. Convert an IP Address from Decimal to Binary Form www. C++ compiles C programs but adds object oriented (OO) features (classes, inheritance, polymorphism), templates (generic functions and classes), function and operator overloading, namespaces (packages), exception handling, a library of standard data structures (string, vector, map. You can use IPAddress. C++ is a compiled language, an upward compatible superset of C and an (incompatible) predecessor to Java. The logic behind to implement this program - separate both character that a hexadecimal value contains, and get their integer values and then multiply with 16 (as hexadecimal value's base is 16) and then add second value, simply you. The following declares two byte variables called b and c: byte b, c; The following code creates two byte type variabls and assigns values. This VBA Tutorial is accompanied by an Excel workbook containing the macros, data and formulas I use in the examples below. Unix Socket - Network Byte Orders - Unfortunately, not all computers store the bytes that comprise a multibyte value in the same order. In COBOL comp-3 fields (and in most other languages) this nybble is reserved for the sign whether or not the field is denoted as a signed field in the COBOL PIC. Thanks Paul [ps1]. You can use these arrays with programs for embedded systems with microcontrollers to output graphics on monochromatic LCD's or thermal printers (like Arduino with the Adafruit mini printer, which I needed this for). C++ compiles C programs but adds object oriented (OO) features (classes, inheritance, polymorphism), templates (generic functions and classes), function and operator overloading, namespaces (packages), exception handling, a library of standard data structures (string, vector, map. From there, we need to convert each byte into it's 8-bit binary representation. /** Data buffer/ byte data[CC1101_DATA_LEN]; That line of code declares an array of datatype byte. byte -> short -> int -> long -> float -> double. Hi All, I am converting a byte array into string but before converting it to string I need to convert the ASCII data in the byte array to ANSI. The word to byte [B] conversion table and conversion steps are also listed. Inside the function, the address is used to access the. Any tips would be appreciated. Here, we are going to convert a char type variable into byte type variable. Since a Java Long occupies 8 bytes allocate a ByteBuffer of capacity 8 and write the Long to ByteBuffer. A long integer can represent a whole integer whose range is greater than or equal to that of a standard integer on the same machine. I just used, for example, BitConverter. The previous blog post explained how slices work in Go, using a number of examples to illustrate the mechanism behind their implementation. The most 7-bit characters that can be packed into 1072 bits is 153. You may have to convert from bytes to a built-in data type after you read bytes off the network, for example. Therefore, I need to convert the byte array into a printable long long. The range of values is from -128 to 127. As so: lValue ---> szValue szValue ---> lValue; szValue being four bytes for the long, and one for a null terminator. I've written a test to try and figure out how conversion between char[] arrays and long long can work. The number can have any size of bits, but the most common numbers used are 32 bits (4 bytes) and 16 bits (2 bytes). So you can use System. You use array indexing to access the bytes (characters) of a string. I've been trying to send a long integer from an Arduino to my C++ program via the serial port. 2 GB to byte = 2147483648 byte. If you send a long text message containing only characters that are part of the GSM 03. decode() decode() has a standard argument. In the above program, we have a byte array named bytes. Instant free online tool for gigabyte to byte conversion or vice versa. Rob Pike 23 October 2013 Introduction. In java int data type take 4 bytes (32 bits) and it's range is -2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483, 647. K (int) [unsigned long long] Convert a C unsigned long long to a Python integer object. The C language provides the four basic arithmetic type specifiers char, int, float and double, and the modifiers signed, unsigned, short and long. Accuracy is "unlimited" between binary and hexadecimal (and vice versa), and is up to 20 digits for decimals. In this example, you will learn to convert binary number to decimal and decimal number to binary manually by creating a user-defined function. your files efficiently and accurately. For this , In c++ you can use itoa() function. The buffer automatically grows as data is written to it. It's commonly used for measuring the amount of data that is transferred in a second between two telecommunication points. I have had some issues trying to perform this conversion. 4 GB to byte = 4294967296 byte. How to use Enum in C# If you have a number of constants that are logically related to each other, then you can group together these constants in an enumeration. Instant free online tool for gigabyte to byte conversion or vice versa. We see its numeric and character-based representation. Recently I needed to convert a number of bytes to a readable string that represents the number of kilobytes, megabytes or gigabytes. NET Color object to a string such as #F782AB. Sending byte array to wireless device by ip address; How do i print byte array without saving in system. Here, we are going to convert a char type variable into byte type variable. Type conversion in Java with Examples When you assign value of one data type to another, the two types might not be compatible with each other. Originally Posted by Bjarne Stroustrup (2000-10-14) I get maybe two dozen requests for help with some sort of programming or design problem every day. Comp-3 packed fields are aligned on byte boundaries, and the field is always a whole number of bytes. Convert Char To Byte This section illustrate the. Instant free online tool for word to byte conversion or vice versa. Before converting the packed-decimal fields it should be determined if a conversion is necessary. Net C# code snippet convert external file to byte array. Long: The methods use the long type. As so: lValue ---> szValue szValue ---> lValue; szValue being four bytes for the long, and one for a null terminator. The length is. karim hamdadi. The online byte converter utility converts bits, bytes, kilobytes, megabytes, terabytes and gives the Hexadecimal value. it's true that I don't see why you'd desperately want to convert the long into an int when it's going to be truncated. Basic types. Java Convert int to long. To me this meant storing a four byte long in four bytes. String to Hexadecimal. So, our 4 byte float is stored as 32 ones and zeros (8 per byte times 4 bytes). encode("hex"), 16). NET Framework has a built in overload of Convert. I have made. Byte, uint8_t and unsigned char, they are basically the same thing in Arduino. A GUID is broken into 4 parts: an Int32 (4 bytes) two Int16s (2 bytes) and 8 bytes. Info: We see that the integer 68 corresponds to the uppercase letter "D". Casting up is okay, so an int is implicitly going to be cast to a long, when needed. I am trying to convert a long into 4 bytes (and also ints to 2 bytes). } and binary file for download, the data format is compatible for all Digole serial modules. @Jonas I'll add that it isn't possible to save EXACTLY a number like 99999999,99 (signed) in 4 bytes, because the log2 of (99999999,99 * 100) (to make it an integer) is 33,22 so it will need 34 bits + 1 bit for the sign and, because you probably want to be able to recognize the short 2 bytes form from the long 4 bytes form when you deserialize it, you'll need an extra bit, so 35 bits that is. Here is the code: [code]#. Here is an online bandwidth / data type calculator to convert the entered value to its equivalent value in SI and binary units of bits (kilobit, megabit, gigabit, terabit, Kibibit, Mebibit, Gibibit and Tebibit) and bytes (kilobyte, megabyte, gigabyte, terabyte, kibibyte, mebibyte, gibibyte and tebibyte). It's commonly used for measuring the amount of data that is transferred in a second between two telecommunication points. Decimal to binary conversion is an important task to understand in IP addressing and Subnetting. Tip: Lists display in a more friendly way with the print method. Net, once you figured out which class libraries you needed to combine. One of its bytes represents output states. We also convert kilobytes to megabytes. please provide me the program with explanation. ToInt64(Byte[], Int32) Returns a 64-bit signed integer converted from eight bytes at a specified position in a byte array. c (bytes of length 1) [char] Convert a C int representing a byte to a Python bytes object of length 1. It serves as a tutorial or guide to the Python language for a beginner audience. The most 7-bit characters that can be packed into 1072 bits is 153. You can also contact us with any suggestions. C# File Size From Bytes. Learn more about int8, int16, int32, typecast, 2-byto to integer conversion. NET Forums / General ASP. Note that while a null string parses to zero, String. Posted by: admin October 29, It's so long! You can use. For a long time I had a fairly complicated way of converting the. I know that DataOutputStream does conversions of this type, but it doesn't return. Its not required to know how long the number is, nor does the code have to skip over any bytes to find the byte containing the sign information. Basic types. The byte data type takes 1 byte of memory and double takes 8 bytes of memory. Read the 4 bytes and store them as long:. In this post, we will check how to convert a Python string to a bytes object. NET, or we could use the one we wrote ourselves!. Since a Java Long occupies 8 bytes allocate a ByteBuffer of capacity 8 and write the Long to ByteBuffer. Rob Pike 23 October 2013 Introduction. One of the ways of performing this conversion is by using the bytes class constructor, passing as input the string. If you really must use String, you can create an instance with a constructor that takes zero terminated string. It is possible to convert several bytes into a byte[] array, correct? Thanks a lot. how to read 4 consecutive bytes as an integer lol in assembler this is easy, but i dont know how to do it in c. Empty throws a FormatException. A Data Type Conversion. The number can have any size of bits, but the most common numbers used are 32 bits (4 bytes) and 16 bits (2 bytes). From what I could tell long ints are only 4 bytes, can anybody provide some inform. Converting unsigned long to string in C. decode() decode() has a standard argument. I need to convert to a long inetger value to byte array in c so that i can access the four byte value of long integer separately. The BitConverter class in. Convert byte to long in C#. on average 300 bytes long and I have to convert. com Convert data types programming in one click !. Whenever I want to check string length / byte count, I just enter len some string in my address bar. Instant free online tool for gigabyte to byte conversion or vice versa. Get File-Size. Depending on the programming language and the computer machine processor, the size of the long integer will vary. Strings, bytes, runes and characters in Go. To convert higher data type into lower, we need to perform typecasting. This example seems to work, but not when I send a negative integer. If you set 0 as string terminator after last character in the buffer, you get a zero terminated string. Instant free online tool for word to byte conversion or vice versa. To be sure the whole file is correctly read, you should call FileStream. To me it makes sense. All help appreciated. You can also check the gigabytes to bytes conversion chart below, or go back to gigabytes to bytes converter to top. It will not display the original text but byte value. It uses the GCC macro __BYTE_ORDER__ to check the system's byte order and define the macros based. h there is a function strtol which will convert given string to a long int at the specified base. The BitConverter class has a static overloaded GetBytes method that takes an integer, double or other base type value and convert that to a array of bytes. C++ Program to Convert Binary Number to Decimal and vice-versa To understand this example, you should have the knowledge of following C++ programming topics: C++ Functions. Bytes objects are immutable sequences of single bytes [1] in the range between o and 255 (inclusive) [2]. To use this function simply provide file path to external file. These data types often cause confusions to new programmers. Made by @mathias — powered by utf8. Learn more about int8, int16, int32, typecast, 2-byto to integer conversion. Concatenates the given long[] array into one String, inserting a delimiter between each pair of elements. Main: The character representations from the input string were first converted to fit in one byte elements each. Hi, i'm triying to chop an unsigned long (32 bit) value into four bytes array, in order to send them via the I2C command Wire. Basic types. C / C++ Forums on Bytes. I am using an android phone to send and receive information to a Wifi module (RN-131) from Roving networks. NetworkToHostOrder() static members to change bytes order if you work with 'network'-odered addresses: Convert IP to Long and Vice Versa C#. Regardless of whether the number is 3. FileStream Read File [C#] This example shows how to safely read file using FileStream in C#. Actually the image which is captured is shown in the form of Base64 string. Convert two 8-bit Bytes into a single Int. ConvertDataTypes is the helpfull website for converting your data types in several programming languages. I want to get the integer value from a byte read from a binary file. Originally Posted by Bjarne Stroustrup (2000-10-14) I get maybe two dozen requests for help with some sort of programming or design problem every day. Unicode Converter enables you to easily convert Unicode characters in UTF-16, UTF-8, and UTF-32 formats to their Unicode and decimal representations. NET name for your type. In the above program, we have a byte array named bytes. Hardware is built to handle the bytes in a particular order, and as long as compatible hardware reads the bytes in the same order, things are fine. Besides the minimal bit counts, the C++ Standard guarantees that 1 == sizeof (char) <= sizeof (short) <= sizeof (int) <= sizeof (long) <= sizeof (long long). This behavior is chosen so that the bytes of a packed struct correspond exactly to the layout in memory of the corresponding C struct. ToInt64(ReadOnlySpan) Converts a read-only byte span into a 64-bit signed integer. This is a long type object that. The most simple way to do this is with the Encoding class: String to bytes: byte[] bytes = Encoding. If you want to see if a value in a long will fit into an int, you can check by conparing your long to Integer. moumita wrote: Hi All, I need to convert 4 bytes to an unsigned long. CLng Function. If (unsigned char) c is no valid single byte multibyte character or if c is EOF, the function returns WEOF. True, that's most of them, but (unlike Java and C#) C and C++ do not define the sizes or formats of the integer and floating point types. Type conversion in Java with Examples When you assign value of one data type to another, the two types might not be compatible with each other. Have you ever wanted to simply typecast a byte array to a data structure and then use that data structure like you used to be able to do in C? Well, C# provides a facility to accomplish this. Among other software, Linux and MySQL were written in the C language. One of the ways of performing this conversion is by using the bytes class constructor, passing as input the string. This is different from how Java handles numeric conversions. Code Description: This program defines a class named is "LongToByte". I know this is a C# question but can you convert a long to a str in C#? In VB you would do something like Cstr(accountid) How do you do the equivalent in C#? Thanks. Net When the Upload button is clicked, the Image file is read into a Byte Array using the BinaryReader class object. This section illustrate the conversion from char to Byte. Suffixes: An F is used at the end. Instant free online tool for word to byte conversion or vice versa. The C language provides the four basic arithmetic type specifiers char, int, float and double, and the modifiers signed, unsigned, short and long. Find anything that can be improved? Suggest corrections and new documentation via GitHub. Returns an unsigned long with the integer value that has the same bits set as the bitset. X86 Assembly/Machine Language Conversion. In COBOL comp-3 fields (and in most other languages) this nybble is reserved for the sign whether or not the field is denoted as a signed field in the COBOL PIC. A long integer can represent a whole integer whose range is greater than or equal to that of a standard integer on the same machine. Convert Packed-Decimal to Text This section describes how to convert the previously discussed packed-decimal formats into text strings to print or display the information in a human readable form. and i want to make the long value to byte[] and byte[] to long. Convert bytes to a Python string. Unlike int or long, you can easily see the individual bytes of a C-style string, one byte at a time.